The disease belongs to the group of fungal infectious pathologies. The favorite place for localization of the causative agent of rubrophytia, or rubromycosis, are smooth areas of the skin, nail plates. It is not excluded the spread of the pathological focus on fluffy and long hair. Find out what methods are used to identify and treat this negative condition.
What is rubrophyte
In medicine, under this disease it is customary to understand an infection caused by anthropophilic (affecting humans) fungi. Rubromycosis affects the skin of the face, neck, trunk, scalp. The disease primarily covers the feet. Further infection with mycosis occurs through the lymphogenous spread of foreign protein structures from the foci of rubrophytosis on the legs or hand-carried.
The causative agent of the disease is Trichophyton rubrum (Trichophyton rubrum), which, once on the smooth skin of the carrier, is able to remain in a passive state for a long time, waiting for favorable conditions. Seeding with spores occurs through direct or indirect contact with the sick. The emergence of smooth dermis rubromycosis is promoted by: non-observance of personal hygiene, decreased immunological reactivity, endocrine disorders. Inoculation (infection) of the skin occurs due to the following reasons:
- taking hormonal, antibacterial drugs;
- decrease in vascular tone;
- disorders of blood supply to the lower extremities;
- pH shift of the skin towards the alkaline environment.
Currently, experts have not established the incubation period of the pathogen. It is known that contact with spores of the fungus does not always end with rubrophyte. In this case, the infected person will simply remain the carrier of the disease for a long period. A person who has undergone rubrophytia does not have immunity to this type of fungal infection. Trichophyton rubrum has the following varieties:
Rubrophytia is accompanied by an erased clinic, which, as the disease progresses, acquires a pronounced character. The localization of pathological foci, the nature of the clinical signs and their prevalence are very diverse, which, in fact, determines the basis for the classification of the disease into certain types. So, depending on the location of the concentration of fungal colonies, it is customary to isolate rubromycosis:
- Stop - the dermis at the site of the lesion becomes dry, hyperemic with a pronounced skin pattern. Peeling according to the mucoid type, rarely single rashes, is noted.
- Brushes - acts as a result of self-infection of the patient. Infection of the hands is manifested by the same symptoms as rubrophytia of the feet. With the progression of the disease around the pathological foci, a discontinuous roller characteristic of this mycosis is observed.
- Nail - detected in patients with other forms of fungal infection. This type of pathology is accompanied by a simultaneous lesion of all nails. The plates thus become yellow-gray, thicken, and then begin to crumble. There are the following stages of rubrophytes of nails:
- normotrophic - only the color of the plates changes;
- hypertrophic - subungual hyperkeratosis increases;
- atrophic - nails acquire a brown color, atrophy and rejection of the affected part of the plate occur.
- Large folds - mainly rubromycosis of the inguinal region is noted, axillary zones can be involved in the skin process.
- Smooth skin - lesions are localized in any part of the body. Smooth skin rubromycosis is characterized by rounded pigmentation.
- Generalized - this type of fungal mycosis is expressed in the combined defeat of the dermis of the hands, feet, nails, body in different variations.
Symptoms of smooth skin rubrophyte
The disease affects the buttocks, thighs, legs. With the classic form of rubromycosis of the smooth dermis, pink or pink-red spots with a bluish tint of rounded shapes are found. The latter are clearly distinguished from healthy skin. The surface of the spots, as a rule, is covered with scales, on the periphery of which an intermittent ridge is formed, consisting of juicy papules covered with small crusts and vesicles.
At the initial stage of development of the rubrofitia of the smooth dermis, moderate pigmentation is observed. As the disease progresses, the spots increase. Changes occur due to peripheral growth and fusion of pathological areas. As a result, spots form extensive lesions with scalloped contours. The hair can be involved in the process. Elements of rubrophytia of smooth sections of the dermis clinically may resemble erythema nodosum.
Differential diagnosis helps to verify the primary assumptions of the doctor regarding the etiology of the disease. Unlike rubrophytia of the smooth dermis, foci of erythema are localized on the legs, less often on the hips, trunk and are represented by symmetrically located dense nodes, ranging in size from a pea to a chicken egg. On palpation, the lesions are painful. The skin above them is hyperemic. Later acquires a brown color. Long pigmentation, peeling is noted. The disease is characterized by leukocyte neutrophilic infiltration of the deep layers of the dermis.
Treatment of smooth skin rubrophyti
Appointment of adequate therapy is impossible without an accurate diagnosis of the disease. The detection of smooth skin rubromycosis is carried out by assigning laboratory tests to the patient: cytological and cultural. Treatment of mycosis includes not only the fight against the symptoms of the disease, but also the elimination of factors contributing to infection: lowered immune status, endocrinological disorders and other predisposing conditions.
Etiotropic therapy of the disease involves the appointment of antimycotic drugs for local and systemic effects on the pathogen. The duration of treatment for smooth skin rubromycosis is determined individually in each case. The average course is 15-20 days. With the strict observance of medical recommendations, the treatment of smooth skin dermophrophy is successful. Systemic use of antifungal drugs is carried out according to one of the following schemes:
- Standard - taking drugs in the usual dosage throughout the entire treatment period of rubrophyte.
- Shortened - the use of medicines for a short period in increased concentrations.
- Intermittent - the appointment of a regular or increased dose of the drug in several short courses, when the intervals between them are equal to the duration of the courses.
- Pulse therapy - an increased dose of the drug is prescribed in short courses with pauses in excess of the duration of treatment courses.
During the treatment of smooth skin rubromycosis, scales and horny layers are removed by means of soap and soda baths, keratolytic agents, lotions. In this regard, Ariswich detachment is more effective: an ointment containing 6 g of lactic acid, 12 g of salicylic acid, 82 g of petroleum jelly is applied to the lesion site. The composition is left on the skin affected by rubrophyte for two days.
A good result is obtained by treating the foci with milk-salicylic collodion, which lubricate the infected areas of smooth skin twice a day for 6-8 days, then apply 5% salicylic petroleum jelly at night under a compress, after which the exfoliating dermis is removed. Treatment of areas affected by rubrophyte should be carried out with disposable gloves. In order to prevent the spread of infection, it is important to follow the rules of aseptic and antiseptic: use individual slippers, a towel, soap and a washcloth, and do not walk barefoot on the floor.
Rubrophytia of smooth skin requires the appointment of antifungal ointments, creams, as well as drugs for oral administration. In addition, patients are advised to follow a diet. It consists in the use of foods rich in protein, vitamins A, E. These nutrients contribute to the speedy healing of affected areas of the skin.
The goal of treating rubrophytia is to eliminate the fungal agent from the dermis. If only the skin is affected without spreading the infectious process to the hair and nails, recovery can be achieved with the help of external antimycotic agents. In advanced cases, synthetic antimycotics for topical and oral administration are prescribed. Prevention of the development of allergic reactions to spores of the pathogen of mycosis is carried out with the help of antihistamines (Fexofenadine, Loratadine).
Product release form
Method of using the drug
Indications for use of the drug
A broad-spectrum fungicidal drug. It violates the metabolism of fungal agents, causing their death.
The cream is applied to the affected skin with a thin layer once a day until the clinical manifestations are resolved.
Dermatomycosis (including rubrophytosis of the smooth dermis), candidiasis of the skin, multicolored lichen
Treatment of smooth skin rubromycosis with this drug is prohibited in case of renal or liver failure, endocrine disorders, tumor processes, pregnancy, lactation
Itching, flushing, burning
The drug has antifungal and antibacterial effects, has an antipruritic effect.
The agent is applied to the affected areas of the smooth dermis with a thin layer twice a day until full recovery
Dermatomycoses (rubrophytosis of the smooth dermis), candidiasis, mycoses of folds, erythrasma, acne, dermatitis with complication of bacterial or fungal infection
Skin tuberculosis, herpes, chickenpox, under 2 years of age, pregnancy, lactation
Irritation, flushing of the skin, itching, urticaria
Betamethasone dipropionate, clotrimazole, gentamicin
The drug has an antibacterial, antifungal effect.
The cream should be applied to the affected skin twice a day before the resolution of the disease
Dermatomycosis, limited neurodermatitis,
Tuberculosis of the skin, herpes, skin manifestations of syphilis, the age of 2 years, chickenpox, pregnancy, lactation
Erythema, exudation, acne, hypertrichosis, local edema, itching
The drug disrupts the synthesis of ergosterol, which is the main element of the cell membrane of fungi
The cream is applied to the affected areas of the smooth dermis by rubrophyte 2-3 times a day for 2-4 weeks
Dermatophytosis (rubrophytia), candidiasis, erythrasma, trichomoniasis, versicolor
Hypersensitivity to clotrimazole, first trimester of pregnancy
Allergic dermatitis, redness, itching
The drug contributes to the violation of the integrity of the cell membranes of fungi.
When rubrophytic smooth dermis should take 1 tablet of the drug per day. Duration of therapy - from 7 days to six months
Multi-colored lichen, candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, folliculitis
Pathology of the liver, children under 3 years old
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, gynecomastia, myalgia, urticaria, anorexia
The drug has a wide spectrum of antifungal activity, inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol in cell membranes of fungi
In case of damage to the smooth dermis, you need to take 2 capsules of the drug per day for a week
Dermatomycoses of any localization (smooth skin rubrophytosis), fungal keratitis, onychomycoses, candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes, pityriasis versicolor, systemic mycoses
Hypersensitivity to intraconazole, pregnancy, lactation, liver pathology, heart failure
Nausea, diarrhea, diplopia, urticaria, Quincke's edema, vasculitis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Prevention of smooth skin rubrophytosis
In order to avoid the addition of a fungal infection, it is important to combat sweating of the legs. Excessive hydration of the skin of the feet contributes to the appearance of microcracks through which the causative agent of rubrophyte penetrates the dermis. Good foot hygiene helps avoid infection. Reducing sweating allows the treatment of the skin of the feet with Formidron or salicylic alcohol. Shoes with a comfortable shoe should be preferred. It is important to abandon synthetic socks, stockings. It is recommended to periodically sanitize shoes. Climbing to walk barefoot in public places.Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.