Incontinence in women: causes and treatment

Young and old people may experience urination disorders. Incontinence in women (incontinence) negatively affects not only their physical condition, but also causes emotional discomfort. Sometimes, due to illness, people dramatically change their lifestyle, avoiding communicating with others, playing sports and staying in public. What are the causes of development and signs of incontinence? How to cure this insidious disease?

Common types of urinary incontinence and their causes

Urinary incontinence is a pathology characterized by an uncontrolled process of urine excretion. This disease affects millions of women around the world. What causes urinary incontinence? Various factors can trigger the development of this pathological condition. Urinary incontinence occurs due to weakening of the muscles of the pelvic floor and / or pelvis, and disturbances in the functioning of the urethral sphincter. These problems can be triggered by the following diseases and conditions:

  • child bearing and childbirth;
  • overweight, obesity;
  • advanced age;
  • bladder stones;
  • abnormal structure of the genitourinary system;
  • chronic infections in the bladder;
  • chronic cough;
  • diabetes;
  • Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's;
  • sclerosis;
  • bladder cancer
  • stroke;
  • pelvic organ prolapse;
  • chronic cough.

Some drugs and products may increase incontinence. For example, medications with a diuretic effect or a relaxing effect on the bladder (antidepressants) can increase urinary incontinence in women. The use of alcohol, tobacco, tea, coffee, soda, a diet based on products that irritate the bladder will increase the manifestation of incontinence. Depending on the characteristics, circumstances of the course, the time of manifestation of urinary incontinence, experts divide this disease into the following types:

  • imperative;
  • stressful;
  • mixed;
  • iatrogenic;
  • reflex;
  • enuresis;
  • involuntary leakage of urine;
  • leakage of urine after the process of emptying the bladder.

Stress urinary incontinence

The cause of this type of urogenital system disorder is a malfunction of the urethral sphincter. When intra-abdominal pressure occurs, the weakened muscles of this organ are not able to prevent urine leakage or complete emptying of the bladder. Symptoms of stress urinary incontinence include: urine during running, laughing, physical exertion, coughing, sex, and no urination.

There are factors that pave the way for the development of a stress species. These include: heredity, obesity, neurological diseases, infectious diseases of the genitourinary system, taking medications of a certain action. But the main conditions that provoke the development of this type of urogenital system disorder are the following conditions:

  • Pregnancy. During childbirth, urinary incontinence is caused by a change in the hormonal background in the body and the pressure of the growing uterus on the genitourinary system. In pregnant women, this urination disorder occurs in half the cases.
  • Childbirth. Problems with uncontrolled urination can occur after childbirth if a woman gives birth to a large child, and the doctors had to make a perineal incision or other manipulations. Due to these factors, ligaments and muscles of the pelvic floor are damaged, there is an uneven distribution of pressure in the peritoneum, which subsequently causes disruptions in the work of the sphincter.
  • Postponed surgery on the pelvic organs. Surgical manipulations with the bladder, uterus often lead to the formation of adhesions, fistulas, changes in pressure in the pelvic area, which leads to problems with urinary incontinence.
  • Age-related changes. Climax, a decrease in the elasticity of ligaments, muscle tone - the causes that cause urinary incontinence in women.

Imperative incontinence

With normal functioning of the bladder, urge to urinate occurs after it is full. At the same time, a person calmly restrains him until the next visit to the toilet. If a woman suffers from imperative incontinence, then even with a small filling of the urinary bladder with urine, irresistible urges to urinate may arise, which cannot be restrained. External stimuli can provoke incontinence in this condition: pouring water, bright light, or another. What is the reason for the appearance of this disorder?

Its main cause is an overactive bladder, which instantly responds even to slight irritation due to the unusual speed of the sphincter nerve impulses. The factors leading to the occurrence of imperative incontinence are old age, childbirth, hormonal changes, injuries, infectious diseases, inflammation, and a tumor. This pathology is almost always characterized by sudden urge to urinate, occurring up to 8-10 times a day.

Night incontinence

Involuntary urination during sleep is called bed wetting. Elderly women often suffer from them due to hormonal changes in their body, which lead to a decrease in estrogen and weakening of the perineum, the condition of the mucous membrane of the urethra and the urogenital diaphragm. At a young age, incontinence at night appears as a result of stretching of the muscles of the pelvic organs, which is provoked by childbirth with tears or perineal dissection. Inflammation in the bladder leads to exacerbation.

Constant

In case of involuntary urination during the day, constant incontinence occurs. Often the cause is age-related changes in the body, nervous disorders and urinary tract dysfunction. In older women, a frequent cause of this phenomenon is spontaneous detrusor contraction, physical stress (for example, when coughing). To correct the situation with incontinence in mild or moderate degree of illness, special exercises for training the pelvic floor will help.

Other species

Taking diuretic drugs, sedatives or drugs with estrogen often leads to the development of iatrogenic incontinence. As a rule, in this case, after treatment with drugs, problems with urination cease. More than 1/3 of women 30-70 years old suffer from mixed incontinence, in which there is a combination of signs of a stressful and imperative course of the disease.

Symptoms and signs of urinary incontinence

Women are more likely than men to face urinary incontinence. This is due to the structural features of their genitourinary system. In women, incontinence is expressed by the following symptoms: leakage of urine, sudden uncontrollable urge to go to the toilet, sensation of an incompletely emptied bladder, sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the vagina.

What to do and how to treat urinary incontinence

How to fix urinary incontinence? If you find a qualified urologist, he will be able to help a woman do everything possible to get rid of the trouble with urination. When talking with a doctor, the patient must frankly talk about all of his symptoms of urinary incontinence. If necessary, the doctor will appoint a woman to undergo additional studies to determine the exact diagnosis. Doctors often refer such patients to the following examinations:

  • urinalysis to detect / exclude the presence of infection in the genitourinary system;
  • vaginal examination to clarify the presence / absence of gynecological diseases;
  • PAD test, which will give information about the amount of urine lost;

After the examination, the doctor will give recommendations on which methods and drugs to use to eliminate problems with urination. There are two types of treatment for urinary incontinence: conservative and surgical. The first of them includes the implementation of special exercises, training the muscles of the pelvis using special devices, physiotherapy, and medications. Conservative treatment lasts for a year.

Drug treatment

How to treat uncontrolled urination? The use of tablets and other medications to get rid of urinary incontinence is effective for a stressful type of disease only when the anatomy of the genitourinary organs is not disturbed. Sometimes adrenomimetics and anticholinesterase drugs are used for drug treatment to increase the tone of the sphincter, duloxetine. With incontinence of an imperative nature, a number of drugs (Driptan, Spazmeks, Vezikar, Detruzitol, hormonal medications, antibiotics for inflammation) give a positive result.

Kegel exercises

Pelvic muscle training eliminates urinary incontinence. Tension and relaxation of the periurethral and perivaginal muscles will help establish control over the process of urination. How to do Kegel exercises for women with urinary incontinence? To do this, in a sitting position, imagine the urge to go to the toilet and try to keep an imaginary stream of urine.

The muscles that are involved in this case should be regularly trained 3 times a day to eliminate incontinence. This is easy to do unnoticed not only at home, but also in the car, at work and elsewhere. In this case, the time of muscle contraction must be increased from a couple of seconds to 3 minutes. The effectiveness of Kegel exercises is improved by using a biofeedback apparatus, which helps to see whether the muscles are involved during training and the correctness of the contractions. Kegel exercises can be performed in this style:

  • contract muscles quickly;
  • Slowly perform muscle contraction
  • perform pushings similar to attempts during childbirth;
  • to hold the stream during real urination.

Medical devices

Effectively helps prevent involuntary urination of the pessary. It is a rubber device that is inserted into the vagina near the cervix to support the urethra in a closed state and to hold urine in the bladder. This device is well suited for comfortable running and other physical activities. Many types of pessaries are intended for continuous use, but there is a chance of genitourinary infections.

Treatment with folk remedies

There are many recipes for the treatment of urinary incontinence folk remedies. They help eliminate inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system and normalize the work of the bladder. These recipes are based on herbal ingredients that do not cause side effects when used correctly. Often, these methods are used to treat urinary incontinence in older women. To get rid of problems with urination, it is necessary to use the following folk remedies:

  • with nightly uncontrolled urination, a weekly intake of 3 times a day mixture of honey (1 tbsp.), grated apple (1 tbsp.), grated onion (1 tbsp.) helps.
  • drink plantain juice (1 tbsp. l.) 3 times a day;
  • drink plantain tincture (1 tbsp. l. plant leaves per 1 tbsp. boiling water) 4 times a day in a glass;
  • use 2 times a day in a glass of tincture of 1 tbsp. l corn stigmas, drenched in 1 cup of boiling water and infused for 30 minutes.

Surgical methods for the treatment of urinary incontinence

If the conservative treatment method does not give a positive result, then the doctor will recommend surgery to eliminate the problem with urination. It can not be used for people with cancer, diabetes, with exacerbation of inflammatory processes. There are several types of surgical methods for getting rid of urinary incontinence:

  • Loop or sling operations. During surgery, a mesh is inserted under the urethra in a loop.
  • Injections into the urethral mucosa of volume-forming preparations. As a result, missing tissue is recovered, and the urethra is fixed in the correct position.
  • Laparoscopic colposuspension according to Burch.
  • Colporaphia (suturing the vagina).

Video: gymnastics for women

Although it is widely believed that urinary incontinence is incurable, there are effective treatments for this problem of urination. One of them is physical exercises aimed at strengthening the muscles of the pelvis. How to do this gymnastics look at the video. Regular classes will help to forget about the problem with uncontrolled leakage of urine and enjoy life again, confidently communicating with people.

Elena, 36 years old, Omsk: After the birth of my second child, I noticed that when coughing, sneezing, I get urine. It is especially inconvenient when such embarrassments occur during physical exertion outside the home. At first I was treated with an egg shell, warming up, but to no avail. The doctor after the examination said that surgery is needed to stop urinary incontinence. I was afraid, but decided to do it. After the operation, the problem disappeared.

Tatyana, 50 years old, Moscow: For more than 10 years she has not spoken to anyone about her illness, but she has experienced painful experiences. But once tired of constantly wearing pads with urinary incontinence, and decided that something needs to be done. I went to the doctor, he recommended surgery. After the operation, I again felt like a full-fledged person.

Zinaida, 30 years old, Voronezh: After the birth of my first child, I became pregnant six months later. After a cold at the 6th month of pregnancy, I noticed that I had urinary incontinence when coughing. When I told the gynecologist about this, he recommended Kegel exercises. After 2 weeks of performing this charge, this problem disappeared.

Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

Watch the video: Urinary Incontinence in Women, Animation. (February 2020).