If this disease is taken lightly, it can develop into more serious pathologies. In neglected cases, treatment of bronchitis in adults can be carried out both in the hospital and at home. There is no single recipe suitable for absolutely everyone. To answer the question of how to cure bronchial disease, it is necessary to understand what it is. Doctors define it as inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchi caused by infection or exposure to external factors.
For all types of disease in the first stages, common symptoms are characteristic. The main ones are: severe coughing, sweating, chest pain, general weakness, shortness of breath, body aches, fever. Symptoms can bother the patient both day and night. Often this leads to sleep disturbance, a disorder of the nervous system. Depending on the causes, several main types of pathology are distinguished:
- smoker's bronchitis;
This type of disease develops against the background of influenza, acute respiratory viral infections or tonsillitis. It is difficult to recognize such a “transition” on your own. Symptoms of these diseases are similar (they can occur simultaneously):
- cough - paroxysmal, deep, accompanied by sputum production, sometimes "barking";
- sore throat;
- fever (may last for several days);
- difficulty breathing
- runny nose;
- chest spasm.
With a mild course of acute bronchitis, some symptoms may be absent. The duration of treatment depends on timely diagnosis, proper therapy. The recovery period in adults is 10-20 days. If the treatment does not help, and the disease does not recede, consult a doctor, he will prescribe the necessary procedures and suitable pills. The main difference between the acute form of pathology and other types of the disease is that it is contagious.
A distinctive feature of chronic bronchitis is the frequency and duration. Periods of exacerbation often occur in the cold season. It is more difficult to get rid of it than from an acute form, since in this case residual effects are characteristic, even after undergoing a course of treatment. Over the years, the disease can progress, take more severe forms. This variety can be identified by characteristic symptoms.
Doctors diagnose a chronic form of the disease if a cough is present for more than three months a year, two years in a row. The following symptoms are characteristic of a chronic course:
- Shortness of breath even with little physical exertion. This is explained by the deformation and blockage of the bronchi, which occurs in chronic bronchitis.
- Cough. With this form of the disease, it is persistent, incessant, with a slight separation of sputum, recurring. Stopping attacks is very difficult.
- The color of sputum can be from yellow to brown, depending on the stage of the disease.
What is smoker's bronchitis is well known to people who have this bad habit. It occurs due to the ingestion of products of combustion and harmful substances into the lungs. This form of the disease is characterized by continuous cough with sputum production. Attacks of a lingering morning cough begin immediately after waking up, and are repeated throughout the day. Smoker's bronchitis begins as one-sided, but eventually flows into two-sided. If untreated, the disease progresses, leading to the development of pneumonia and a chronic cough.
With any type of bronchial pathology, the main symptom is cough. With the obstructive form, attacks occur in the morning, after going out into the cold, at the onset of physical activity after rest. Often a cough is accompanied by spasms of the bronchi. With this form of the disease, shortness of breath after physical activity is observed. At first, shortness of breath appears only after serious exertion, but over time it occurs during everyday activities or at rest. The main causes of obstructive form:
- Professional. The causative agent is harmful substances contained in the environment (for example, in hazardous industries). Once in the body, they become the main cause of obstructive bronchitis.
- Genetic. They are determined by the method of passing tests and passing examinations.
Unlike chronic or acute bronchitis, it is not infectious, so the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of an allergic form of the disease does not make sense. This type of pathology arises due to the acute sensitivity of the body to any substance. A list of symptoms will help diagnose an allergic form:
- Temperature increase during exacerbation.
- There is a relationship between external stimuli (eating certain foods, being near animals, taking medications) and coughing fits.
- Manifestation of uncharacteristic symptoms, such as skin rashes.
- Cough with pathology of an allergic form is continuous, paroxysmal in the daytime.
- Wheezing, whistling as you exhale.
Diagnosis of the disease
To make an accurate diagnosis, the patient must consult a doctor - pulmonologist. Only a specialist is able to prescribe the correct therapy in each individual case. It is highly discouraged to diagnose yourself and self-medicate. For an accurate diagnosis of pathology, adults are prescribed such examinations and analyzes:
- listening to the patient with a phonendoscope;
- sputum analysis;
- computed tomography of the lungs (only with chronic bronchitis);
- general blood analysis.
How to treat bronchitis in adults
If you do not know what means are effective, self-medication is not worth it. Lack of the necessary assistance can lead to the fact that the disease will remain untreated. Therapy of the bronchi is not limited to drug therapy. In an integrated approach, physiotherapy is successfully used: UHF, inductothermy of the interscapular region and halotherapy. The generally accepted standard for the treatment of bronchi includes 4 stages:
- Quitting smoking, proper nutrition.
- The use of bronchodilator drugs (Salbutamol, Erespal), the mechanism of action of which is to stimulate receptors, which leads to the expansion of the bronchi.
- The use of expectorant and mucolytic agents that help remove sputum.
- The use of antibiotics (Augmentin, Biseptol) and antiviral drugs (Cycloferon).
Drugs in this group contribute to the removal of bronchospasm. According to the type of action, these drugs are divided into three types: adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics and combined drugs. They should be considered in more detail:
- Adrenomimetics. They relax the muscles in the walls of the bronchi, relieving spasm. An example of such a drug is salbutamol, which is used for asthmatic and chronic forms of pathology. It is contraindicated in children under 2 years old, pregnant. The drug is available in various forms, there is a choice - take it inside or inject it intramuscularly.
- Anticholinergics. They have a pronounced bronchodilator ability. A prominent representative of such drugs is Erespal. This is an anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator drug. Children under 14 years of age are prescribed as a syrup. Contraindicated in case of intolerance to one of the components of the drug.
- Combined drugs. Combine the actions of anticholinergics and adrenergic agonists. Example - Berodual (International nonproprietary name - Ipratropium bromide + Fenoterol). The actions of the components of the drug reinforce each other, which leads to high treatment efficiency. The tool alleviates the condition with a dry or productive cough, begins to act after 10-15 minutes.
The action of expectorants is aimed at eliminating sputum. This is a prerequisite for the treatment of bronchitis in adults. If the body cannot independently get rid of a large amount of sputum, it stagnates, and pathogenic bacteria begin to multiply actively in this environment. More often than other means, doctors prescribe for adults such expectorants:
- Mukaltin. Liquefies viscous sputum, facilitating its exit from the bronchi.
- Herbs based on Thermopsis - Thermopsol and Codelac Broncho.
- Herbion syrup, Stoptussin phyto, Bronchicum, Pertusin, Gelomirtol - are based on medicinal herbs.
- ACC (acetylcysteine). An effective means of direct action. It has a direct effect on sputum. If you take the wrong dosage, it can cause diarrhea, vomiting, heartburn.
If bronchitis is of a bacterial nature, then antibiotics are prescribed. With a viral infection, they are useless. To find effective antibiotics, it is necessary to conduct a sputum test. It will show what bacteria caused the disease. The list of antibiotics is now very wide, the doctor should select them. Here are the main groups of such drugs:
- Aminopenicillins - Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin, Augmentin. The action of these drugs is aimed at suppressing harmful microorganisms, but they do not harm the patient's body.
- Macrolides - Macropen, Sumamed, Azithromycin, Klacid. Directly block the growth of bacteria.
- Fluoroquinolones - Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin. Antibiotics of wide action. They are used to treat bronchitis, chlamydial infections, etc.
- Cephalosporins - Cefazolin, Suprax, Ceftriaxone. Affect penicillin-resistant microorganisms.
- Flemoxin solutab. Amoxicillin analog. Quickly absorbed into the blood. Release form - tablets.
Therapy of bronchitis in adults with the help of inhalation is carried out using the following groups of drugs:
- antiseptic agents
The advantage of this method is the rapid absorption of the drug. Preparations for bronchitis have a very wide range of actions, only the doctor can choose the best option. For inhalation, the following devices are used:
- Steam inhalers. Effective for bronchitis are considered inhalations with essential oils and herbs.
- Heat-moistened inhalers. They are one of the most affordable devices for carrying out procedures at home. With such inhalations, alkaline solutions and phytopreparations are used.
- Nebulizer One of the most effective appliances. With its help, treatment is carried out at any stage of bronchitis. The device turns drugs into tiny particles that easily reach the focus of the disease.
The range of medications for inhalation using a nebulizer is very wide. Pulmicort or Ventolin is often used in the treatment regimen (prevents and eliminates bronchospasm). The latter is contraindicated during pregnancy, children under 2 years of age and with individual intolerance to the components of the drug. Some drugs, such as Ambroxol, in addition to tablets and ampoules for intramuscular injection, are also available as a solution for inhalation.
Treatment of bronchi is also carried out with external preparations. For this, ointments based on animal fats are used. They are applied by rubbing on the skin in the region of the bronchi. The positive effect of the treatment is achieved through a gentle massage when applying the product. The components have a warming effect, making the cough moist and making it easier. Ointments can be purchased or prepared independently at home. Before using any of them, an allergy test must be performed.
Ready-made ointments are more convenient to use and more effective, they contain much more useful substances. One of these drugs is Dr. IOM, which has a minimum of contraindications, is allowed for adults and children. Another popular remedy is bear fat. It is used both internally and externally. For exposure through the skin can be used balms Dr. Taiss, eucalyptus, "Star", ointment Bom Bengue and boron menthol, badger fat.
Treatment with folk remedies
In the treatment of bronchitis in adults, both pharmacy medicines and those prepared according to traditional medicine recipes can be successfully used. These drugs and procedures are less effective, and the course of administration lasts much longer. Here are folk remedies that have proven effective:
- Aloe with honey. It is applied inside half an hour before meals. A mixture of aloe, honey, melted lard and chocolate, taken in equal proportions, is made.
- Propolis. An alcohol tincture of this remedy is made and added to tea and herbal infusions of 15 drops. It has an antibacterial property.
- Milk with soda. It is successfully used in the chronic form of the disease and bronchitis of the smoker.
- Potato inhalation. Follow the scheme: boil the potatoes in their skins, remove from the stove, bending over a hot pan, inhale the vapors for 10 minutes. To prevent the potatoes from cooling quickly, cover your head with a large towel.
- Cranberry syrup on vodka. Pound the berries (100 g), squeezing the juice, mix them with sugar (50 g). After bringing the syrup to a boil, cool and add a glass of vodka (200 ml). To remove sputum, take 2 times a day before meals.
- The bathhouse. Only steam it after consulting a doctor.
- Warming up. These procedures are carried out using a mixture of honey, mustard powder and flour (home mustard) or castor oil and turpentine. The mixture is applied to the chest area and to the back and left overnight. As a warming agent, pepper plasters are also used.
- Compresses For compresses, honey-oil, potato-soda mixtures are used. A honey compress is applied to the back, insulated with cotton wool and left on the patient's body until the morning.
Medicines prescribed for the treatment of bronchitis in adults (e.g. Biseptolum, Chloramphenicol) are strictly contraindicated for pregnant women. A complete lack of therapy can lead to fetal hypoxia, the threat of abortion, bleeding and other negative consequences. An X-ray examination prescribed for the diagnosis of the disease is strictly contraindicated.
If you suspect inflammation of the bronchi, you should consult a doctor. After the examination, he will prescribe the necessary treatment, which may include:
- Drink plenty. Milk, decoctions of herbs, tea.
- Anti-inflammatory herbal decoctions for sore throats.
- Means that facilitate dry cough - breast collection, linden tea, milk with honey.
- Performing breathing exercises and physiotherapy exercises.
- If a woman lives in an area with poor ecology, it will be useful to visit a sanatorium.
- Physiotherapy (prescribed only by a doctor).
If the cough does not go away after a month
Long-term treatment of bronchitis in adults at home often leads to dangerous complications. If the cough does not go away after a month, contact the clinic. Refusal of treatment or reliance on the knowledge of a pharmacy pharmacist in adults and the elderly can cause bronchotracheitis, purulent infection, tracheobronchitis, tracheitis and long rehabilitation.
If you followed all the doctor’s prescriptions, took the medicine for bronchitis, but there was no improvement, the therapist should send you to the hospital with the transfer of the treatment protocol. Additional tests will be performed at the hospital, you will be prescribed medication (antibiotics for adults, antiviral drugs) and procedures (dropper, physiotherapy).
Treatment of bronchitis is carried out by various methods. Remember that cough treatment is only part of a combination therapy. After watching the videos below, you will find out what signs are the first to indicate the presence of the disease, what is the alternative treatment. In the final video, the famous pediatrician Komarovsky will explain with examples how bronchitis cannot be treated (mentioning homeopathy).