To defeat skin diseases that cause fear and cause mental discomfort, you need to approach the process responsibly. Chronic eczema - ulcerative formations on the skin, the treatment of which is carried out by tablets, ointments or folk remedies at home. What is the essence and cause of the disease, what happens and what to do to recover as soon as possible?
What is chronic eczema?
This is a very common chronic dermatitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the upper layers of the skin, a constant course with periodic relapses and prolonged remissions. The disease takes a chronic form for various reasons: with improper treatment of the acute form, allergies to medications, non-compliance with the diet and hygiene rules, concomitant treatment with severe stress, nervous breakdowns.
From what appears-
The disease has an endogenous origin, occurs on the skin due to internal disorders of the body: immune, mental, physiological. Any of the reasons provokes a reflex reaction of the skin, as a result of which the surface layer becomes very sensitive, vulnerable, which causes the appearance of eczema. An important factor for the onset of the disease is a genetic predisposition, people with such a tendency can get sick in any adverse case. In addition, there are such main causes of the disease:
- insufficient or prolonged acute treatment;
- diseases, conditions associated with a decrease in immunity;
- mycotic lesions, fungal infections;
- impaired metabolism;
- stress, mental disorders.
What does eczema look like?
The disease manifests itself in the form of inflamed rashes, mainly red, crimson, which can peel off, become crusty. In severe stages, the formation of purulent cavities, necrosis of the skin. The clinical picture of eczema: the epidermis thickens, the folds become bluish due to hyperemia, cracks appear on the surface of the foci. With exacerbation of eczema, small vesicles appear that burst and form small painful ulcers.
On the hands, the ailment has a pronounced manifestation in the form of plaque growths, rough areas of peeling, deep cracks. Signs are visible on the palms of the hands and on the outside of the hand; they itch. Daily routines like washing hands, contact with household chemicals can be painful and sometimes cause bleeding. The cause of local lesions may be prolonged exposure to an allergen or general body problems.
On the body
Idiopathic eczema on the body is characterized by large areas of rash on the chest, back, legs. The disease can affect the genitals of a man, the scrotum. The skin in the affected areas peels, itches, becomes covered with thin crusts of the plaque type, vesicles. It is impossible to comb sore spots; serious complications are possible when infection is introduced into the wound. Local external medicines (ointments, cooling balms, oils) will help cope with itching.
Any allergic reaction in a child can occur with complications in the form of dermatitis. The disease in a child is most likely to develop between the ages of 2 months and 5 years, and a genetic predisposition plays an important role. It is localized mainly on the face, neck, bends of the hands. The disease may look like red plaque-like spots, weeping foci of erosion, which over time become covered with a dense crust.
The classification of eczema is wide. Given that the disease is considered idiopathic, that is, its origin is not fully understood, the main types of lesions are distinguished. This helps the localization of rashes of eczema, their nature and the established causes of the appearance, which can be traced in the body. The following varieties are known:
- True eczema. Appears on the arms and legs (feet and hands) in the form of a scattering of bubbles, at the opening of which a weeping surface forms, covered with crusts.
- Occupational eczema. It occurs in open areas of the body if a person is engaged in specific work related to allergens (plants, manufacturing, chemical laboratories, etc.).
- Microbial (paratraumatic) eczema. The causative agent of the disease is a yeast fungus, often formed on the site of existing large wounds, burns when infection gets into them. It is characterized by greenish rashes with purulent foci.
- Atopic eczema. When bursting, the bubble becomes wet and forms a focus of inflammation.
- Mycotic eczema. It develops on the feet with mycosis. Edema and the development of additional infections are characteristic.
- Seborrheic eczema. It affects places with impaired sebum secretion, mainly the scalp.
- Pruriginous eczema. Small papules, vesicles that do not burst, but form a dense surface. The skin becomes dry, peeling. The main places of localization are on the hands, stomach, back.
- Herpetic or Kaposi's disease. The disease appears around the lips, on the chin in children and adults after infection with herpes, spreads throughout the face.
- Tylotic or horny disease. Deep cracks in the feet and hands, itching, uneven lesion area.
The characteristic features of the disease include rash, irritation, plaque-like growths, vesicles, erosion on the surface of the skin that cause itching, or are painless. The skin thus becomes dry, thickened, loses elasticity and softness. In subacute periods that are accompanied by fever, the patient may experience headache, nausea, and fever. Symptoms of eczema can not always be clearly separated from other dermatitis, so if a suspicious rash occurs, it is better to consult a doctor immediately.
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by such doctors as a dermatologist, immunologist, allergist. They can use for this analysis methods, laboratory allergic studies, study the family history of diseases and determine the type of dermatitis. To prevent the diagnosis of eczema from becoming chronic, you need to establish it as soon as possible and start therapy.
How to get rid of chronic eczema
Eczema, if it becomes permanent, is characterized by prolonged remissions with rare but bright periods of exacerbation. It is almost impossible to completely get rid of it, but to achieve the maximum duration of the recession is quite real. This requires a thorough integrated approach, regular procedures and mandatory compliance with the rules of hygiene and a special diet.
Some products during the illness can cause itching, exacerbation of inflammation and even pain, so you need to strictly regulate your diet. Diet during therapy is very important, because nutrition plays a key role in the healing process. Steamed, boiled, and strongly fried, greasy, spicy foods are best suited. What foods can make symptoms worse:
- fruits and vegetables: tomatoes, strawberries, citrus fruits, kiwi, pineapple; potatoes are possible, but not much;
- sweets: cakes, rolls, chocolate, honey, jam;
- smoked meats, too spicy dishes, marinades, mayonnaise, fatty sauces.
What to do with exacerbation -
Such factors as household chemicals, parasites (ticks, lice), poor-quality clothing, and the wrong diet can provoke a worsening of the condition. Diet for exacerbation: it is recommended to use light vegetable soups, cereals on the water, dairy products in any quantities (cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk), meat is only boiled, fish is only river, boiled.
There is an unfavorable period - the cold seasons: autumn and winter. Colds, coughs, runny nose, all sorts of infectious diseases can lead to complications of this disease, this is especially true for children and adults with weakened immunity. With proper nutrition and a reasonable approach, true eczema will quickly return to the stage of remission.
How to cure a disease
To begin with, you need to limit all contacts with allergens that can worsen the course of the disease, possibly reduce the number of stressful situations in life: practice relaxing techniques like yoga, swimming, and meditation. Take a shower no more than 2 times a day. It is necessary to determine the type of dermatitis and use in the system all the methods prescribed by the doctor.
The medical treatment of eczema includes external drugs, vitamin therapy, and oral medication: these are hormonal, antihistamines, antifungal drugs, immunoregulators, and corticosteroids. In violation of the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and liver - prebiotics, enzymes. If the methods do not have the desired effect on the disease, physiotherapy may be prescribed.
Local ointments and creams for the disease are effective: hormonal, antifungal, with antibacterial effect (Sinaflan, Advantan, Triderm, Flucinar). External treatment of eczema at the stage of wet erosion may include lotions with sodium thiosulfate, silver nitrate, dimexide; when the liquid ceases to stand out - oil compresses, alcohol talkers.
If the scalp is affected, then antiseborrheic drugs, special shampoos and masks are prescribed. Types of physiotherapy include electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, cryotherapy, and therapeutic mud baths are often recommended. For external treatment of children, lotions from decoctions of medicinal herbs, antihistamine ointments are used, in severe cases, autohemotherapy or plasmapheresis.
Pills are an important part of eczema treatment. One of the types of effective medications is antibiotics, they help to correct internal changes when bacterial infections join, and prevent suppuration of ulcers. Antihistamines for eczema are common: they reduce inflammation, reduce the intensity of symptoms, and help get rid of itching and irritation. Some common names for the treatment of a chronic form of the disease:
- sedatives, anti-allergic (antihistamines): Suprastin, Diphenhydramine, Tavegil, Diazolin, Glycid, Persen, Erius, Zirtek, Claritin, Semprex, Fenistil, Eden, Tsetrilev;
- vitamins: B1, B2, thiamine, ascorbic acid, Neurovit, Decamevit, Supradin;
- hormonal: Dexamethasone, Carizon.
How to treat folk remedies
Alternative medicine can offer many ways to treat idiopathic eczema. Various herbal tinctures, natural ingredients, oils are actively used to prevent illness. If you are a supporter of natural treatment, folk remedies for eczema will definitely suit you, they effectively contribute to drug therapy, can cool the skin, reduce itching, heal cracks and wounds. A few traditional medicine recipes for treatment:
- Burdock. Brew 15 g of burdock root with a glass of boiling water, cook in a water bath for 10 minutes, insist 2 hours, drink a tablespoon 4 times a day.
- The yolk mass. Boil eggs, take out the yolks. Keep the yolks above the fire until they begin to secrete fluid. Collect it in a separate container, cool, wipe the affected areas of the skin on the legs.
- Salt. It is convenient to use for lesions on the hands. Pour hot water into a large basin, pour salt, dip your hands with eczema into the water and hold until the water has cooled completely.
- Nettle. Pour a tablespoon of fresh leaves with a glass of water, insist in a thermos for 3 hours, drink half an hour before meals in a glass, 3 times a day.
- Hypericum oil. Lubricate the affected areas with finished oil or cook it yourself: pour the crushed plants with sunflower oil, leave for 2 weeks.
- Mustard. Dilute the mustard powder with boiling water to a thick consistency, pour this mass into a bowl, put your hands in it, hold until the mass cools down.
- Sour cream and copper sulfate. Mix a glass of sour cream and half a teaspoon of vitriol, apply to the skin, wash off after 20 minutes.
It is necessary to avoid overheating, hypothermia, washing too often, bathing. Eczematous irritations appear when wearing clothes and linen made of synthetic fabrics, wool, flannel. Chronic disease can be caused by the use of excessive amounts of cosmetics, perfumes, deodorized products. The main prevention of eczema is the observance of personal hygiene rules, regular washing of hands after contact with chemicals, animals, dust.
Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.