What is vascular atherosclerosis - causes and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

The development of vascular atherosclerosis occurs in adulthood, and the manifestation of the disease occurs in large arteries and vessels. The chemical composition of the blood is violated, and the presence of an increased concentration of lipids slows down the flow of biological fluid, reduces the permeability of the vascular walls. Progressive atherosclerosis of the arteries is a chronic diagnosis, so the patient’s task is to extend the period of remission.

What is vascular atherosclerosis

This chronic disease belongs to the category of cardiovascular pathologies, prone to periodic relapses in a weakened body. Since protein-lipid metabolism is disturbed in the walls of the vessels, doctors are talking about such unpleasant concepts as “bad cholesterol” and “atherosclerotic plaques”. This disease often develops in the body of women, but men, under the influence of provoking factors, also fall into the risk group. More often it is atherosclerosis of the aortic arch, which leads to the development of incurable cardiac ischemia.

Symptoms

Clinical signs of a characteristic ailment do not appear immediately, at first atherosclerosis is an asymptomatic diagnosis. Further symptoms depend on the cardiovascular system, which receives insufficient amounts of oxygen-enriched blood with valuable nutrients. It is important to determine the blood supply to the organ - the focus of pathology. As a result - impaired activity of the myocardium, brain, other complications, not always associated with human vitality.

Atherosclerosis of the heart vessels

If a characteristic ailment occurs, the patient's general well-being gradually worsens, and the signs of atherosclerosis are bedridden, and they are forced to issue a sick leave once again. It is recommended to pay attention to the following symptoms of the disease, which can be temporarily eliminated mainly by medical, alternative methods:

  • acute chest pain localized in the myocardium;
  • increased pressure on the sternum;
  • signs of angina pectoris;
  • soreness when performing a deep breath;
  • renal failure;
  • risk of heart attack;
  • decrease and jumps in blood pressure;
  • abnormal heart rate.

Vessels of the lower extremities

The upper and lower extremities are equally involved in the pathological process against the background of an abnormal narrowing of the lumen of the vascular walls of large and medium arteries. Such internal departments are removed from the myocardium, however, the severity of symptoms adversely affects the general condition of the patient, limits his mobility. The signs of obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities are as follows:

  • pain in the legs during long walks;
  • numbness of the lower extremities;
  • the difference in body temperature and legs, palpable palpation;
  • long-term healing of open wounds;
  • increased swelling of the lower extremities;
  • violation of the pulse of the arteries of the legs;
  • limited mobility.

Cerebral vessels

Large arteries are involved in the pathological process, in the structure of which the presence of atherosclerotic plaques is observed. As a result of the disturbed blood flow, the usual origin of nerve impulses in the cerebral cortex stray, oxygen starvation progresses, the number of painful attacks of migraine, dizziness and confusion increases. In modern cardiology, the symptoms of such a dangerous disease are as follows:

  • frequent dizziness and nausea;
  • circles in front of the eyes;
  • discomfort in a stuffy room;
  • decreased memory, physical and mental abilities;
  • disturbance of the phase of sleep;
  • emotional instability;
  • disturbed metabolic processes;
  • signs of mental disturbance.

Causes

Before treating atherosclerosis, it is necessary to study the etiology of the pathological process. It all starts with the formation of blood clots, narrowing the lumen of the vessels, resulting in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that overlap the vessels. The cause of the pathology is the accumulation of fats, a change in the chemical composition of the blood. The main causes of such pathogenic mechanisms and risk factors are presented below:

  • the presence of bad habits;
  • one of the stages of obesity;
  • diabetes;
  • dyslipidemia;
  • malnutrition;
  • physical inactivity;
  • genetic factor;
  • energy overvoltage;
  • arterial hypertension;
  • age-related changes in the body;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • transferred infectious diseases with complications;
  • intoxication and infection;
  • pathology of the endocrine system;
  • prolonged exposure to stress.

Stages

Having determined what can cause atherosclerosis, an individual consultation with a cardiologist is necessary. Before conducting clinical examinations and laboratory studies, it is shown to study the existing stages of a characteristic ailment, the high probability and severity of an acute attack. In modern cardiology, the following stages of atherosclerosis are distinguished:

  1. First stage. Decreased rate of systemic blood flow, increased grease stains, and the absence of painful symptoms.
  2. Second stage. Liposclerosis is accompanied by the proliferation and spread of adipose tissue, a high probability of a blood clot and a violation of systemic circulation.
  3. Third stage. Atherocalcinosis is accompanied by compaction of atherosclerotic plaques, calcium deposition, vascular deformation and narrowing of the lumen with a risk of blockage.

Diagnostics

In modern cardiology, it is impossible to determine coronary atherosclerosis by collecting anamnesis data, in addition to examining the patient and studying his medical history, it is necessary to pass tests, visit a number of narrow-profile specialists, and undergo a comprehensive examination. Specificity and features of diagnostics provides for the following areas:

  • blood chemistry;
  • duplex scanning of brachiocephalic arteries and limbs;
  • radiopaque angiography;
  • ECG, stress ECG, echocardiography;
  • Ultrasound, CT and MRI;
  • ultrasound dopplerography of cerebral vessels;
  • radiography.

Treatment

With the manifestation of a characteristic ailment, it is required to start treatment of atherosclerosis in a timely manner. Intensive care can be provided through conservative methods and physiotherapeutic procedures. The main goal is to determine the pathogenic factor and eliminate it from the life of a clinical patient, normalize systemic blood flow, lower the level of bad cholesterol with the help of prescribed medications. It is allowed to carry out alternative treatment, however, all the nuances must be additionally discussed with the attending physician. In the absence of effect, surgery is recommended.

Medication

The first step is to control your daily diet, eliminate fatty and fried foods, limit the intake of salt, spices, animal fats, fast food. Nutrition should be balanced, contain a sufficient amount of fiber. This will help to control weight, treat obesity and remove the stomach, to avoid another attack. As for taking medications, they are determined by a knowledgeable cardiologist strictly for medical reasons. These are the pharmacological groups:

  1. Nicotinic acid and preparations with its content to ensure antiatherogenic properties, eliminate harmful cholesterol and triglycerides;
  2. Sequestrants of bile acids to reduce the concentration of lipids in the cells. These are drugs Colestyramine, Colestipol, Kolesevelam.
  3. Beta-blockers to eliminate unpleasant symptoms, reduce the severity of a pain attack. These are Carvedilol, Metoprolol, Betalok.
  4. Diuretics with diuretic effect for high-quality blood purification from cholesterol. These are Hypothiazide, Diacarb, Indapamide.
  5. Calcium channel blockers, represented by such medicines as Anipamil, Finoptin, Gallopamil.
  6. Fibrates for the synthesis of own fats. These are clofibrate, bezafibrat, fenofibrat, bezafibrat, gemfibrozil.
  7. Statins to speed up the breakdown and elimination of fats. These are Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin.

Surgical

If conservative methods have proved ineffective in practice, the patient is prescribed an operation to eliminate all manifestations of atherosclerosis, ensuring high-quality vascular cleansing and a long period of remission. Since such a disease poses a threat to the patient’s life, the doctor offers one of the following surgical interventions in a hospital setting:

  1. Thrombolytic therapy. The pathogenic clot dissolves, while the systemic blood flow is normalized, the vessels are cleaned.
  2. Angioplasty. The vascular lumen is expanded due to the injection of oxygen using a special medical balloon.
  3. Bypass surgery. Creating new blood flow using vessels to bypass a potential lesion site.
  4. Endarterectomy. High-quality cleaning of the vascular walls with special tools, there is a steady positive dynamics.

After the operation, the patient's sensations are not the most pleasant, therefore, a long rehabilitation period is required. To bring the general condition back to normal, the patient needs to take a medical course, exclude the influence of pathogenic factors, abandon bad habits and normalize the daily diet. Plant fiber, vitamins, proteins, exclusion of sugar and harmful lipids from the daily diet will contribute to this. With atherosclerosis, alternative medicine methods can be used, and then pathogenic factors are easily eliminated.

Folk remedies

From atherosclerosis, doctors recommend using a rosehip decoction, which has a stable diuretic effect. The drug productively cleans clogged vessels, removes harmful cholesterol, lipids, toxic substances. For the preparation of healing broth 1 tbsp. l dry herbs steam 1 tbsp. boiling water, insist and strain, take orally after meals twice a day - in the morning and in the evening. Other popular recipes for atherosclerosis are presented below, useful for problem vessels:

  1. Crush the roots of elecampane, ready mixture in a volume of up to 1. h. Pour 300 ml of water, add oregano, a shepherd's bag, blackberry. Boil, boil for 5-7 minutes. Take the finished composition throughout the day in equal portions.
  2. 50 g of Japanese sophora pour 500 g of vodka, insist in a dark place for 30 days. Take orally for 1 tsp. three times a day, preferably before meals, drink plenty of fluids.
  3. Place 50 g of cloves in a glass container, pour 500 ml of vodka, infuse the composition for 2-3 weeks. Take 1 tsp. infusion three times a day, while making sure that chronic diseases of the stomach are absent.

Onion juice with honey from atherosclerosis

This is an effective remedy against atherosclerosis, which can be prepared at home. It takes 300 g squeezed garlic (onions) to combine with the juice of three lemons. Stir, place in a glass container, insist in the refrigerator overnight. 1 tsp. dilute the composition in a glass of warm water, take orally.

Complications

If the disease atherosclerosis proceeds in a complicated form, complications are not excluded even after prolonged treatment. The consequences of the operation are especially dangerous, so you need to carefully prepare for the surgery, go through the diagnosis and pass all the necessary tests. Among the potential complications of atherosclerosis, the following dangerous pathologies are required:

  • heart failure;
  • acute blockage of blood vessels;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • sudden fatal outcome;
  • rupture of an aneurysm of the artery.

Prevention

To avoid atherosclerosis, productive cleaning of blood vessels requires the use of alternative medicine methods for reliable prevention. In addition, it is shown to change the usual way of life, adhere to the basic rules of proper nutrition, play sports and take walks in the fresh air. With a tendency to atherosclerosis, a multivitamin complex to strengthen the vascular walls is not superfluous, it is supposed to drink enough water to normalize the body's water metabolism.

Video: atherosclerotic cardiosclerosis

Attention! The information presented in the article is for guidance only. Materials of the article do not call for independent treatment. Only a qualified doctor can make a diagnosis and give recommendations for treatment based on the individual characteristics of a particular patient.

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